GMP and GACP Regulations in Europe

June 05, 2023 by Bjoern “Andy” Mannsfeld, M.D. & Wrick Macaya Papa, EUCannaJobs

In the European Union (EU), cannabis is currently classified as a medicine. As adult-use recreational legalization progresses, it is likely that the same medical standards will be largely maintained since people will still be ingesting the product. Cannabis is therefore considered both a pharmaceutical product and also an agricultural product. The pharmaceutical and agricultural industries are highly regulated to ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of products. Two key regulatory frameworks that govern these industries are Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP). These guidelines play a crucial role in maintaining high standards and protecting the health and well-being of consumers. 

What is Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)?

GMP refers to a set of guidelines that outline the principles and procedures for the manufacturing and quality control of pharmaceutical products to ensure consistency and to meet the required quality standards. GMP regulations cover various aspects of the manufacturing process, including facility design, equipment validation, personnel training, documentation, quality control, and product testing.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission provide guidance and enforce these regulations through inspections and audits. Compliance with GMP is mandatory for pharmaceutical companies operating within the EU, as well as for those exporting products to EU markets.

Adhering to GMP regulations offers several benefits. It reduces the risk of contamination, cross-contamination, and mix-ups during the manufacturing process, thereby safeguarding product quality and patient safety. GMP also promotes traceability and accountability through proper documentation and record-keeping, facilitating product recalls, investigations, and regulatory audits when necessary.

What is Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP)?

The Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) is designed to control all activities performed on a plant during its growth or cultivation and right up until it is harvested. These guidelines make sure that the plants are cultivated, harvested, and processed in ways that preserve their effectiveness, safety, and high standards. GACP covers aspects such as site selection, soil quality, cultivation practices, pest control, harvesting methods, post-harvest processing, and storage.

In Europe, GACP regulations are essential for the herbal medicinal product industry. They provide a framework for ensuring the sustainable production and traceability of medicinal plants. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national regulatory authorities are responsible for issuing and enforcing GACP guidelines, which help maintain the quality and safety of herbal medicinal products available in the EU market.

Adhering to these guidelines ensures that plants are cultivated without the use of harmful pesticides, heavy metals, or other contaminants. GACP also promotes sustainability by encouraging responsible sourcing and cultivation practices, reducing the impact on ecosystems and biodiversity.


In Europe, GMP and GACP standards are essential for maintaining the quality, integrity, and safety of goods produced in the food, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. Companies show their dedication to creating high-quality products and preserving public health by following these requirements.

The European regulatory authorities, such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission, continuously update and enforce these regulations through inspections, audits, and guidelines to keep pace with evolving scientific knowledge and technological advancements. The harmonization of these regulations across EU member states ensures consistency and facilitates the free movement of pharmaceutical and herbal products within the European market.

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